Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Pediatric nephrology covers a large field of medical developments, including genetics, care strategies, and renal preservation while Pediatric Urology care the fetus that have urological abnormalities diagnosed on prenatal Ultrasound & care for prepubescent females with genital issues. Most of the pediatric kidney diseases are congenital, some of them familial with a precise heredity.

  • Track 1-1Neonatal Renal Physiology
  • Track 1-2Ambiguous genitalia
  • Track 1-3Bartter syndrome
  • Track 1-4Hernias and hydroceles
  • Track 1-5Hypospadias
  • Track 1-6Urinary tract infection
  • Track 1-7Principles of fluid management for Pediatric patients
  • Track 1-8Fluid Balance in the Pediatric Patient
  • Track 1-9Electrolyte Disorders in the Pediatric Patient
  • Track 1-10Pediatric Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
  • Track 1-11Kidney stones
  • Track 1-12Megaureter
  • Track 1-13Neurogenic bladder
  • Track 1-14Ureteropelvic junction obstruction

In the prenatal period, Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys & urinary tract are the most common Sonographically identified malformations. In the fetus, child, or adult, a pager proportion of kidney cysts are due to genetic diseases when compared with adults. The ultimate aim of prenatal diagnosis is to detect the renal anomalies which are having impact on the prognosis of the affected child & requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes.

  • Track 2-1Double Collecting System
  • Track 2-2Unilateral Atrophic Kidney
  • Track 2-3Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Renal and Urinary Malformations
  • Track 2-4Renal Congenital Anomalies
  • Track 2-5Hydronephrosis
  • Track 2-6Nephronophthisis
  • Track 2-7Renal Agenesis
  • Track 2-8Echogenic Kidneys
  • Track 2-9Bladder Outlet Obstruction
  • Track 2-10Ectopic Ureteral Implantation
  • Track 2-11Renal Cysts
  • Track 2-12Pelvic Kidney

In recent study, it is found that, Glomerular diseases are the cause for Renal Failure in 30% - 50% of patients undergoing transplantation. Disorder of Glomerular Structure and Function are found more frequently in clinical medicine. The application of renal biopsy techniques can provide useful information for both prognosis and treatment.

  • Track 3-1Steroid Sensitive and Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Track 3-2Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis
  • Track 3-3Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
  • Track 3-4Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy
  • Track 3-5Alport Syndrome

These disorders can evoke a variety of clinical syndromes, including acute glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive glomerulo-nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, "symptomless" hematuria and/or proteinuria, and chronic glomerulonephritis. Glomerular Diseases are the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Diseases. There are less information available regarding the treatment of CKD caused by Glomerular Diseases. Most of the glomerulopathy can progress to Chronic Kidney Diseases if not treated early when the disease is most active.

  • Track 4-1Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Track 4-2ANCA Associated Kidney Diseases
  • Track 4-3Henoch–Schönlein Purpura Glomerulonephritis
  • Track 4-4Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Acute kidney injury is the abrupt loss of kidney function that results in a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), retention of urea and other nitrogenous waste products, and dysregulation of extracellular volume and electrolytes. The incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in Children appears to be increasing. Genetic Factors may predispose some children to AKI. Children who have suffered Acute Kidney Injury are at risk for late development of kidney disease several years after the initial insult. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of AKI, early biomarkers of AKI, and better classification of AKI are needed for the development of successful therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKI.

  • Track 5-1Pre-Renal Failure
  • Track 5-2Intrinsic Renal Disease
  • Track 5-3Acute Tubular Necrosis
  • Track 5-4Hypoxic/ischemic Insults
  • Track 5-5Uric Acid Nephropathy and Tumor Lysis Syndrome
  • Track 5-6Decreased True Intravascular Volume
  • Track 5-7Toxin mediated
  • Track 5-8Glomerulonephritis—RPGN
  • Track 5-9Vascular Lesions

The major anomalies of the genitourinary tract are now reconstructed in infancy and from the pediatric point of view the results are good. However, they leave a legacy of potential morbidity in adolescence and adult life. Many problems are predominantly medical or psychosocial rather than surgical in nature and it is essential to adopt a holistic approach to long-term care. Close collaboration between pediatric and adolescent or adult urologists is also important to ensure continuity of follow-up and specialist care.


  • Track 6-1Acute Cystitis
  • Track 6-2Acute Pyelonephritis
  • Track 6-3Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Track 6-4Renal Tubular Acidosis
  • Track 6-5Bartter Syndrome
  • Track 6-6Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

Pediatric End-Stage Renal Diseases affects children of all ages. The outcome of End-Stage Renal Diseases in Children has considerably improved since the development of dialysis and kidney transplantation. Children constitute 1-2% of total ESRD population, but the devastating effects of ESRD are more significant than in adults. The mortality rate of children on dialysis is estimated to be 30 to 150 times higher than genal pediatric population. When examined by age, peritoneal dialysis is the most common initial ESRD treatment modality for children age 9 years and younger. Hemodialysis is the least common initiating modality in small children and increases in frequency with increasing patient weight.

  • Track 7-1Epidemiology of End-Stage Renal Disease in Children
  • Track 7-2Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Track 7-3Nutrition in ESRD

For more than a decade, Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) was recognized as a major reason of the death in Children with advanced Chronic Kidney Diseases. Similar to adults, Children have extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related CVD risk factors. As a population without preexisting symptomatic cardiac disease, children with CKD potentially receive significant benefit from aggressive attempts to prevent and treat CVD. Early CKD, before needing dialysis, is the optimal time to both identify modifiable risk factors and intervene in an effort to avert future CVD. Slowing the progression of CKD, avoiding long-term dialysis and, if possible, conducting preemptive transplantation may represent the best strategies to decrease the risk of premature cardiac disease and death in children with CKD.

  • Track 8-1Cardiomyopathy
  • Track 8-2Early Markers of Atherosclerosis
  • Track 8-3Carotid Arterial Wall Stiffness
  • Track 8-4Coronary Artery Calcification
  • Track 8-5Avert CVD before Dialysis in Children

Congenital Renal Diseases are the renal conditions with which a child is born. These conditions are passed down through genetics or development in the womb. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are genetic kidney diseases in Children. There are no cures for Congenital Renal Diseases. These conditions require lifelong careful monitoring and treatment.

  • Track 9-1Unilateral renal agenesis
  • Track 9-2Bilateral renal agenesis
  • Track 9-3Hydronephrosis, Obstructive Uropathy, and Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney
  • Track 9-4Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Track 9-5Nephronophthisis
  • Track 9-6Rare Genetic Disorders

In adults where hypertension is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, however, in pediatrics, hypertension is the condition from prior disease or injury. There is a significant issue with the unrecognized hypertension in childhood chronic disease. Although Chronic Kidney Disease is relatively rare in children as compared with adults, hypertension is highly prevalent. The prevalence of Hypertension is tenfold higher than in general pediatrics and know to increase as children progress through the stages of CKD. Now, there are many studies demonstrating an interaction between Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypertension, with hypertension likely hastening the progression of CKD towards End Stage Renal Disease.

  • Track 10-1Overweight
  • Track 10-2High blood pressure in children
  • Track 10-3White coat hypertension

Penile and Urethral Cancers are rare. Because of their rarity, delay in diagnosis secondary to both patient and physician factors are a constant threat. Any lesion of the penis that cannot be definitively diagnosed must be considered cancer until otherwise proven. Glans penis masses are extremely rare in childhood. Fibroepithelial polyps of glans penis are very rarely seen in childhood. The search for the optimal management of penile and urethral cancer continues. Controversy revolves around organ-sparing vs non–organ-sparing techniques and minimally invasive vs standard techniques. Fortunately, these diseases are infrequent, but this very infrequency is impeding more rapid evolution of a consensus opinion.

  • Track 11-1Varicocele
  • Track 11-2Genital cancers
  • Track 11-3Risk factors of Penile Cancers
  • Track 11-4Peyronie Disease
  • Track 11-5Treatments for Penile Cancer
  • Track 11-6Dynamic diuresis renography

Bladder exstrophy, a rare birth defect where the bladder is not contained inside the abdomen, but is visible on the outside of the body. This condition is more common among boys than it is among girls. Children with bladder exstrophy often have other abnormalities, such as an unusually wide pelvic bone structure or problems with abdominal muscles. Girls with bladder exstrophy may have a urinary opening in the wrong place, or one that’s very large or misshapen. Girls with bladder exstrophy also may have a split clitoris. Boys with bladder exstrophy may have a deformed penis, or it may be curved downward. Boys with bladder exstrophy also may have an unusually short urethra, or one that’s on the upper part of the penis, instead of on the tip.

  • Track 12-1Cloacal Exstrophy
  • Track 12-2Exstrophy Variants
  • Track 12-3Pseudoexstrophy
  • Track 12-4Superior vesical fissure
  • Track 12-5Duplicate exstrophy
  • Track 12-6Covered exstrophy

Urinary bladder masses are rare in children and the histologic features & prognoses are different from those in adults. Most children with urinary bladder masses present with lower urinary tract symptoms, which may include hematuria, dysuria, frequent urination, and urgency to urinate. However, some of these masses may be identified incidentally or involve generic symptoms such as abdominal distention. The frequencies and types of bladder diseases differ between adults and children, although there is some overlap. The most common bladder malignancy in children is a rhabdomyosarcoma, whereas the most common benign bladder lesion in the pediatric population is a papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP).

  • Track 13-1Treatment for Bladder Cancers
  • Track 13-2Neuropathic Bladder and Spinal Dysraphism
  • Track 13-3Urolithiasis
  • Track 13-4Superficial bladder cancer
  • Track 13-5Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • Track 13-6Symptoms
  • Track 13-7Bladder Cancer Screening and Diagnosis

When there is a suspect of kidney diseases, a physical examination and urine tests, blood tests, imaging, or biopsy will help to make a diagnosis. These are usually suggested by the doctors in Pediatric Urology and Pediatric Nephrology study. The main causes for the kidney damage in children will be hereditary, in some cases due to the unhealthy lifestyle. Some kidney problems can be found before birth by ultrasound. Sometimes, children are diagnosed with other conditions where kidney problems are known to be more common. Usually, there are other concerns about a child's health that can possibly lead to a diagnosis of CKD.

  • Track 14-1Urine Test
  • Track 14-2Ultrasound of the kidney
  • Track 14-3Cystography
  • Track 14-4Pyelogram
  • Track 14-5Prostate/Rectal Sonogram
  • Track 14-6Renal Angiogram
  • Track 14-7Cystometry
  • Track 14-8Urine flow test
  • Track 14-9Nuclear Renal Scan

When kidney disease hits the child/infant, the dialysis will be the temporary live saving procedure. There have been many advancements and researches done in the dialysis technology which lowered the risk of patient’s death. In a recent news, it is found that the available dialysis machines will not be suitable for the children with the kidney diseases. The most recent news regarding the dialysis is the Bioengineered cells can be used for dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis is most commonly the initial modality in small children. Hemodialysis is the least common initiating modality in small children and increases in frequency with increasing patient weight

  • Track 15-1Peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 15-2Intermittent Hemodialysis
  • Track 15-3Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Track 15-4Controversies in Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Track 15-5Physical condition affects the patient during transplantation
  • Track 15-6Transplantation Cost
  • Track 15-7Preemptive Transplantation

Vesicoureteral reflux(VUR), an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys. It may present before birth as prenatal ureterohydronephrosis, an abnormal widening of the ureter, or with a urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis. Vesicoureteral reflux is estimated to occur in 1% to 3% of children. Younger children are more prone to Vesicoureteral reflux because of the relative shortness of the submucosal ureters. In children with Urinary Tract Infections, the incidence of VUR is 29% in boys and 14% in girls. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most children with the cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate.

  • Track 16-1Risks of the Procedure
  • Track 16-2Side Effects of the Procedure
  • Track 16-3Subureteral Dextranomer
  • Track 16-4Hyaluronic acid copolymer injection

Under possible conditions, surgery is the main treatment for kidney cancers that can be removed. Kidney tumor ablation is an effective alternative to surgical resection for small renal tumors that have not spread beyond the kidney. It is a minimally invasive, nonsurgical procedure with a recovery time of less than 24 hours. Radio Frequency Ablation of tumors in children has been performed in only a small number of cases.

  • Track 17-1Laparoscopic Cryoablation
  • Track 17-2Percutaneous ablation
  • Track 17-3Radiofrequency Ablation
  • Track 17-4Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Track 17-5Cryoablation

Pediatric urology procedures are necessary for treating children’s urological conditions. These disorders or conditions are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth. Surgery is the primary treatment for most types of urological conditions. Specifically, robotic laparoscopic surgery has become the standard of care. Surgeons rely on this minimally invasive approach because it’s generally less painful, requires a shorter hospital stay, and has a shorter recovery time than traditional open surgery. Circumcision, an elective urological procedure to remove the foreskin from the penis, is normally performed in the first few days after a baby is born.

  • Track 18-1Robotic Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Track 18-2Hemodialysis
  • Track 18-3Nephrectomy
  • Track 18-4Pyeloplasty
  • Track 18-5Ureteral Reimplants
  • Track 18-6Ureteral Stent Placement
  • Track 18-7Bladder Augmentation Surgery
  • Track 18-8Epispadias and Exstrophy Procedure
  • Track 18-9MAG 3 Lasix Renal Scan and DMSA
  • Track 18-10Renal Bladder Ultrasound
  • Track 18-11Ureteral Reimplantation Surgery
  • Track 18-12Urodynamics
  • Track 18-13Voiding Cystourethrogram New
  • Track 18-14Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Original

Transplantation in children is one of the best options to treat renal failure. Nearly half of children who have received transplants have a functioning kidney graft 14 years after transplantation. Preemptive transplantation is optimal treatment of pediatric ESRD for maintaining growth and development of children. Unfortunately, the other half have returned to dialysis and require a second transplant during childhood or adolescence. In some cases, the transplanted kidney can be rejected due by the recipient’s immune system. In a recent research, it is explained that over the last 25 years the improvements in therapy have reduced the risk of early acute rejection and graft loss, but the long term results in terms of graft survival and morbidity require search for new immunosuppressive regimens. Tolerance of the graft and reducing the side effects are the challenges for improving the outcome of children with a grafted kidney.

  • Track 19-1Immunosuppressive Medications for Transplantation
  • Track 19-2Challenges and Perspectives
  • Track 19-3Causes of Death after Transplantation
  • Track 19-4Recurrent Diseases after transplantation
  • Track 19-5Growth after Renal Transplantation
  • Track 19-6Incidence of Obesity
  • Track 19-7Transplant Outcomes
  • Track 19-8Trends in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation
  • Track 19-9Pre-emptive transplantation
  • Track 19-10Short and long-term complications
  • Track 19-11Acute Rejection of Graft
  • Track 19-12Post-transplant hypertension
  • Track 19-13Post-transplant Infection
  • Track 19-14Chronic Allograft Nephropathy
  • Track 19-15Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disease

Children with Kidney Diseases may have a negative self-image and may have relationship problems with family members or friends due to the stress of living with a chronic disease. The condition can lead to behaviour problems and difficulty participating in school and extracurricular activities. Parents and other adults should help children with kidney diseases to fit in at school, deal with low self-esteem, make friends, be physically active, and follow their treatment regimen. As children approach adulthood, they may need help with preparing to enter the workforce.

  • Track 20-1A Well-planned Diet
  • Track 20-2Physical activity importance for every child
  • Track 20-3Psychological stability-Stress Free

As a consequence, we are exposed to and have to accommodate advances in many different areas of medicine from endocrine treatment of the fetus to exploring the limits of robotic surgery. At the basic level of our surgical lives is surgical technique which has undergone steady refinement over centuries and decades with the occasional boost given by a conceptual breakthrough. The steady improvement in results from advances in suture material was a passive benefit but the conceptual advance of enlarging the bladder using bowel was ahead of its time and doomed to failure until the game-changing process of intermittent catheterization came to its rescue. The world of transplantation has grown enormously since the first renal transplant more than half a century ago. Unfortunately, the expansion of our speciality in terms of centers as well as individuals has coincided with a downward trend in the numbers of patients with serious congenital anomalies. One of the simple factors is simply the declining birth rate.

  • Track 21-1Exploring the Limits of Robotic Surgery
  • Track 21-2Miniaturized Robotic Instruments Controlled by AI
  • Track 21-3Implantable Artificial Kidney
  • Track 21-4Bioartificial Kidney