Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

The fetal kidneys do serve the important role of producing increasing volumes of urine, the most important constituent of amniotic fluid. Although the kidneys play an important role in enabling the new-born infants to adopt to the postnatal physiological environment, it is immature and its ability to regulate and maintain normal homeostasis is reduced, particularly in premature neonates. A variety of pathological and metabolic demands can impair the physiological functions of the kidney in this age group. A reduction in the production of fetal urine as a result of renal damage


  • Track 1-1Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Track 1-2Sodium Balance
  • Track 1-3Water Metabolism
  • Track 1-4Potassium Balance
  • Track 1-5Acid-Base Balance

Pediatric Nephrology is dedicated to care of children with renal diseases like urinary tract infection, bowel bladder dysfunction, nephrotic syndrome, chronic glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, congenital renal anomalies, tubular disorders, systemic severe and progressive renal disorders. Pediatric nephrology covers a large field of medical developments, including genetics, care strategies, and renal preservation. Most of the pediatric kidney diseases are congenital, some of them familial with a precise heredity. Chronic dialysis remains a life event for most of the children on end-stage renal disease despite the growing place of pre-emptive kidney transplantation. Pediatric nephrologist have the special skills and experience to treat child. Pediatric nephrologists treat children from infancy through late adolescence and in some centers up to young adulthood. Nephrologists are specialists in medical diseases of the kidney, and endocrinologists specialize in endocrine problems affecting the kidneys, like diabetes, and of some problems of the genitalia, like ambiguous genitalia.

  • Track 2-1Acute Kidney Failure
  • Track 2-2Acute Nephritic Syndrome
  • Track 2-3Analgesic Nephropathy
  • Track 2-4Chronic Renal Failure
  • Track 2-5Kidney Stone
  • Track 2-6Post Streptococcal GN
  • Track 2-7Posterior Urethral Valve
  • Track 2-8Reflux Nephropathy
  • Track 2-9Nephrolithiasis
  • Track 2-10Nephrcalcinosis
  • Track 2-11Fluid Balance

Pediatric Urology is the surgical specialty that deals with problems of the genitalia and urinary tract of children. Most often, children are born with the problems in the kidneys and genitalia. However, sometimes these problems are not known until children develop a urinary tract infection, such as a bladder or kidney infection. Sometimes problems with the kidneys are found on ultrasound before babies are born. Pediatric urologists are surgical specialists who have trained in surgery and general urology after medical school and who then have completed fellowships specifically in pediatric urology. Pediatricians often manage medical problems of the urinary tract and genitalia. Pediatric nurse practitioners work closely with patients whose problems require biofeedback and other behavioural or motor training.

  • Track 3-1Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Track 3-2Bladder Dysfunction
  • Track 3-3Bedwetting(Nocturnal Enuresis)
  • Track 3-4Urinary Tract Dysfunction
  • Track 3-5Ureteropelvic junction obstructions
  • Track 3-6Hypospadias

Urinary Tract Infection(UTI) is one of the most common disorders of the childhood. The presence of UTI in this age group is varied and the diagnosis can be problematic, particularly in young infants in whom the clinical picture is often non-specific and reliable urine samples are difficult to obtain.

  • Track 4-1Lower tract infection
  • Track 4-2Upper tract infection (pyelonephritis)
  • Track 4-3Upper tract infection (pyelonephritis)
  • Track 4-4Other UTI

Chronic Renal Failure is the loss of the Kidney Function which can be diagnosed with GFR. The causes of growth failure and poor intellectual development in children with CRF are multifactorial but the principal factors involved are poor nutrition, renal osteodystrophy, salt wasting, metabolic acidosis, anaemia and hormonal changes. Obligatory urinary salt loss is a common feature of chronic renal failure in infants with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract – notably renal dysplasia. Chronic renal failure in children is rare. Its management is complex and demands the expertise and resources of a skilled multi-professional team


  • Track 5-1Growth Retardation
  • Track 5-2Sexual Immaturity
  • Track 5-3Sexual Immaturity
  • Track 5-4Intellectual Retardation
  • Track 5-5Malnutrition
  • Track 5-6Renal Osteodystrophy
  • Track 5-7Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
  • Track 5-8Clinical manifestations

Stones are rare in Children. Infection remains major aetiological factor particularly in boys. The rate of stone recurrence is lower in children when compared to adults. The majority of the stone diseases are treated by lithotripsy or endourological techniques. Nephrology and Urology deals with Kidney stones. The incidence of stones is twice as high in boys as it is in girls.

  • Track 6-1Pathology/Aetilogy
  • Track 6-2Diagnostic imaging and Metabolic Screening
  • Track 6-3Open Stone Surgery
  • Track 6-4Minimally Invasive Methods
  • Track 6-5Stone Recurrence

Urinary incontinence by day (diurnal), night (nocturnal) or both day and night is common during childhood. It can be defined as the involuntary loss of urine from the urinary tract. It is often a cause of major social morbidity in affected individuals: it causes children to be stigmatised by their peers and has a disruptive impact within their families. Children who wet, therefore, deserve as much attention as children with other urological disorders.


  • Track 7-1Development of bladder control
  • Track 7-2Functional diurnal incontinence
  • Track 7-3Organic urinary incontinence
  • Track 7-4Spinal neurological disease
  • Track 7-5Urge syndrome
  • Track 7-6Lazy bladder
  • Track 7-7Occult neuropathic bladder
  • Track 7-8Deferred voiding

Surgical treatment is undertaken for specific indications. Nowadays, if there is an informed parental preference, endoscopic treatment may be considered as an alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Whether performed by an open approach or laparoscopically, the Anderson–Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty is universally regarded as the operation of choice. Robotic pyeloplasty is limited to a small number of centres and is currently under evaluation. The operative time is longer than for conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty and substantially longer than the operative time for open pyeloplasty.


  • Track 8-1Open pyeloplasty
  • Track 8-2Laparoscopic pyeloplasty
  • Track 8-3Percutaneous nephrostomy
  • Track 8-4Ureterocalicostomy
  • Track 8-5Endopyelotomy and balloon dilatation
  • Track 8-6Nephrectomy

Imaging is increasing its role in monitoring and diagnosing kidney disorders especially renal cell carcinoma. Size, location, margins, lesion homogeneity, and consistency, presence or absence of septations or mural nodules, presence or absence of calcification, intratumoral fat or central stellate scar, echogenicity on US, vascularity on Doppler, degree of enhancement on CT, phase of maximum enhancement on CT, signal characteristics on MRI, tumor stage, and presence or absence of tumor growth are the factors required for imaging. Multiplexed Fluorescence Microscopy is one of the advances in imaging of Renal Cell Carcinoma.


  • Track 9-1Ultrasound or Ultrasonography
  • Track 9-2Micturating cystourethrography
  • Track 9-3Alternative methods of cystography
  • Track 9-4DMSA scintigraphy
  • Track 9-5Abdominal X-ray
  • Track 9-6Intravenous urography or urogram
  • Track 9-7Computed tomography
  • Track 9-8Dynamic diuresis renography
  • Track 9-9Cross-sectional imaging: magnetic resonance imaging
  • Track 9-10Multiplexed Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Track 9-11Label Free Non-Destructive Microscopy
  • Track 9-12Multiphoton Microscopy
  • Track 9-13Genetic Cell Fate Tracking
  • Track 9-14Calcium Signalling
  • Track 9-15Multi- Detector- Row Computed Tomography

The kidney is also affected by genetic disorders like Polycystic Kidney Disease, Alport Syndrome which are generally called Hereditary Kidney Diseases. Some diseases are caused by the mutations in the gene. In some cases, a person may inherit a gene with a mutation that usually leads to a disease, but never get that disease. In these cases, either unrelated genes that a person inherits can protect from developing the disease, or else both  the mutation in the gene and some environmental exposure are required to get the disease, and the person without the disease just never had that environmental exposure. In recent days Polycystic Ovarian Disease is found very common among women.


  • Track 10-1Alport Syndrome
  • Track 10-2Bartter Syndrome
  • Track 10-3Cystic Kidney Disorders
  • Track 10-4Horseshoe Kidney
  • Track 10-5Medullary Sponge Kidney
  • Track 10-6Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Track 10-7Amyloidosis

Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters are numerous and not only potentially render image interpretation confusing but also, in many instances, make the kidneys more prone to pathology. Some may have numerous kidneys, and some have pancake like shaped kidneys. Those with Bilateral Renal Agenesis often have additional birth defects, both associated with, and a result of the absence of kidneys. With no kidneys, the fetus is unable to produce urine, which is necessary to form amniotic fluid resulting anhydromnios.


  • Track 11-1Supernumerary Kidney
  • Track 11-2Cross Fused Renal Ectopia
  • Track 11-3Pancake Kidney
  • Track 11-4Abnormal Renal Rotation
  • Track 11-5Intrathoracic Kidney
  • Track 11-6Persistent Fetal Lobulation
  • Track 11-7Hilar Lip
  • Track 11-8Deomedary Hump
  • Track 11-9Bifid Collecting System
  • Track 11-10Retrocaval Ureter

Congenital Renal Anomalies identified in the prenatal period. Defects can be bilateral or unilateral, and different defects often coexist in an individual child. It plays a causative role in 30 to 50 percent of cases of end-stage renal disease in children, it is important to diagnose these anomalies and initiate therapy to minimize renal damage, prevent or delay the onset of End Stage Renal Disorders, and provide supportive care to avoid complications of End Stage Renal Disorders. Patients with malformations involving a reduction in kidney numbers or size are most likely to have a poor renal prognosis.

  • Track 12-1Renal Agenesis
  • Track 12-2Renal Dysgenesis
  • Track 12-3Congenital Megacalyectasis
  • Track 12-4Congenital Cystic Renal Disease
  • Track 12-5Obstructive Renal Disease
  • Track 12-6Pre-tumourous Conditions

Failure of migration of mesoderm to the area of the cloacal membrane, and subsequent lack of development of an intermediate layer between its inner (endodermal) and outer (ectodermal) layers, leads to rupture and exposure of an open bladder plate and urethra. In primary penile epispadias there is variable diastasis that tends to be less severe than in bladder exstrophy.


  • Track 13-1Bladder exstrophy
  • Track 13-2Cloacal exstrophy
  • Track 13-3Primary epispadias
  • Track 13-4Continence surgery

Nephrology and Urology, both deals with  the cystic kidney diseases. It is an inherited, developmental, acquired kidney disorder. It causes symptoms like high blood pressure, back pain, blood in urine, frequent kidney infections. Polycystic kidney diseases are the most prevalent kidney cysts. The two prevalent subtypes of polycystic kidney diseases are: Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney diseases. Non-cancerous cysts can be cured and rarely cause complications. Simple cysts are not same as the cysts that form with polycystic kidney disease.


  • Track 14-1Polycystic renal disease
  • Track 14-2Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  • Track 14-3Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
  • Track 14-4Multicystic dysplastic kidney
  • Track 14-5Multilocular renal cyst
  • Track 14-6Simple renal cyst

Benign tumors are not real cancers, though some of them can change into cancer any time. A major problem is they can be confused with real cancers since benign tumor often require no treatment. They often found by investigations through MRI scans, CT or by ultrasound. Benign kidney tumor never causes symptoms but difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. They are common in women of middle age or later. The tumors can eventually multiply in both the kidney and causes renal failure.


  • Track 15-1Neuroblastoma(Wilms’ tumour)
  • Track 15-2Nephroblatoma
  • Track 15-3Clear Cell RCC
  • Track 15-4Renal Rhabdoid tumour
  • Track 15-5Cystic Nephroma
  • Track 15-6Mesoblastic Nephroma
  • Track 15-7Angiomyolipoma
  • Track 15-8Renal Adenoma
  • Track 15-9Oncocytoma

In childhood, the kidney is more susceptible to blunt trauma because it lacks the degree of protection afforded to the adult kidney by  the bulk of surrounding perirenal fascia and overlying muscle. Although minor injuries to the genitourinary tract are relatively common in childhood, major trauma is fortunately rare and, with the exception of isolated blunt renal trauma, tends to occur in conjunction with other injuries.


  • Track 16-1Renal trauma
  • Track 16-2Ureteric injuries
  • Track 16-3Bladder injuries
  • Track 16-4Urethral injuries
  • Track 16-5Injuries to the external genitalia

Laparoscopic skills are now essential tools for both pediatric surgeons and pediatric urologists. The benefits of minimally invasive surgery, coupled with parental awareness and demand, have led to its increasing popularity in recent years. The benefits of laparoscopic surgery to children are well known and include reduced postoperative pain, increased postoperative comfort, reduced hospital stay, quicker return to normal activities, improved cosmesis and reduced wound complications


  • Track 17-1Laparoscopic surgery in children
  • Track 17-2Heminephrectomy
  • Track 17-3Pyeloplasty
  • Track 17-4Robotic Pyeloplasty
  • Track 17-5Adrenalectomy

The major anomalies of the genitourinary tract are now reconstructed in infancy and from the pediatric point of view the results are good. However, they leave a legacy of potential morbidity in adolescence and adult life. Many problems are predominantly medical or psychosocial rather than surgical in nature and it is essential to adopt a holistic approach to long-term care. Close collaboration between pediatric and adolescent or adult urologists is also important to ensure continuity of follow-up and specialist care.


  • Track 18-1Female genital reconstruction
  • Track 18-2Vesicoureteric reflux in adults
  • Track 18-3Posterior urethral valves
  • Track 18-4Enterocystoplasty
  • Track 18-5Enterocystoplasty
  • Track 18-6Prune-belly syndrome
  • Track 18-7Spina bifida
  • Track 18-8Fertility

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death which is caused by chronic kidney disease and cardiometabolic risk. It is closely related to kidney diseases and causing dysfunction of both organs. Patients with End Stage Renal Disease are at much higher risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. The risk factors are hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Acute Kidney Injury is strongly related to cardiovascular Disease and its early diagnosis and treatment will have significant positive effect.


  • Track 19-1Calcium-phosphate levels
  • Track 19-2High homocysteine levels
  • Track 19-3Dysrhythmias
  • Track 19-4Peripheral edema
  • Track 19-5Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Track 19-6Uremic Pericarditis

Kidney disease is a chronic illness with three basic treatments: haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplantation. Renal Care is taking good care of your kidneys with proper diet, exercise and medication. Renal Care service provides some of the finest, simplest and most efficient dialysis machines for sale in the market. Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine. This helps keep your fluids and electrolytes in balance when the kidneys can’t do their job.


  • Track 20-1Dietary Manipulation
  • Track 20-2Phosphate-binding agents
  • Track 20-3Vitamin D therapy
  • Track 20-4Recombinant human growth hormone for growth failure
  • Track 20-5Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Track 20-6Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 20-7Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
  • Track 20-8Hemodialysis
  • Track 20-9Chronic haemodialysis
  • Track 20-10Hemoperfusion
  • Track 20-11Hemodiafiltration
  • Track 20-12Hemofiltration

Kidney function tests look for the level of waste products, such as creatinine and urea, in blood. Analyzing a sample of urine may reveal abnormalities that point to chronic kidney failure and help identify the cause of chronic kidney disease. Kidney biopsy is often done with local anesthesia using a long, thin needle that's inserted through your skin and into your kidney. The biopsy sample is sent to a lab for testing to help determine what's causing your kidney problem. Ultrasound is used to assess your kidneys' structure and size. Diagnosis method vary for different conditions.


  • Track 21-1Endovascular Surgery
  • Track 21-2MR Angiography
  • Track 21-3Renal Biopsy
  • Track 21-4Renal Arteriography
  • Track 21-5Intravenous Urography

When kidneys fail, treatment is needed to replace the work of kidneys can no longer do. When you get a kidney transplant, a healthy kidney is placed inside body to do the work of kidneys can no longer do. There are fewer limits on what you can eat and drink, but you should follow a heart-healthy diet. Your health and energy should improve.  In fact, a successful kidney transplant may allow you to live the kind of life you were living before you got kidney disease. Studies show that people with kidney transplants live longer than those who remain on dialysis. Bio Artificial Transferable Kidneys are the new artificial kidney discovered which made revolution in kidney transplantation. Successful kidney transplantation offers the best possible quality of life for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite this, the successful renal transplantation rates in the developing world are considerably lower than in the developed world. When identified reasons for this include lack of awareness, low education levels, lack of a clear national policy, absence of functional dialysis and transplant units with adequately trained staff, and absence of an organized system of organ retrieval from deceased donors and lack of opportunities to fund long-term immunosuppression. Some of Challenges include Acute Rejection, Graft Loss, Graft Survival.


  • Track 22-1Living Donor
  • Track 22-2Pre-Emptive Kidney
  • Track 22-3Acute Rejection
  • Track 22-4Graft Loss
  • Track 22-5Chronic Allograft Nephropathy
  • Track 22-6Graft Survival
  • Track 22-7Cost Reduction
  • Track 22-8Pediatric Renal Transplantation
  • Track 22-9Deceased Donor

 Urology also deals with the reproductive parts in the infants and children. A number of factors are responsible for the differentiation of the male external genitalia, including the synthesis of testosterone by the fetal testis, the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase and the presence of androgen receptors within the target cells. Androgenic stimulation of the genital tubercle results in the development of the male phallus. From the seventh week of gestation the male urogenital sinus advances on to the phallus as the urethral groove. Ingrowth of this urethral groove is associated with the appearance of urethral plate tissue destined to canalise and form the definitive male anterior urethra.


  • Track 23-1Hernias
  • Track 23-2Hydroceles
  • Track 23-3Undescended Testis
  • Track 23-4Hypospadias and Disorders of the Penis
  • Track 23-5The prepuce
  • Track 23-6Hydrocoele
  • Track 23-7Varicocoele
  • Track 23-8The acute scrotum
  • Track 23-9Disorders of sex development