Bladder exstrophy and epispadias
Failure of migration of mesoderm to the area of the cloacal membrane, and subsequent lack of development of an intermediate layer between its inner (endodermal) and outer (ectodermal) layers, leads to rupture and exposure of an open bladder plate and urethra. In primary penile epispadias there is variable diastasis that tends to be less severe than in bladder exstrophy.
- Track 1-1 Bladder exstrophy
- Track 2-2 Cloacal exstrophy
- Track 3-3 Primary epispadias
- Track 4-4 Continence surgery